**Introduction:**

Power Systems Certificate Training – Hands-on

Power systems certificate Training is designed by highly educated instructors at ENO in order to provide a specialized training in power system area. The certificate consists of four technical power system areas which is designed for engineers and students seeking to improve their power system knowledge and position themselves for their job responsibilities and promotions. Our industry and faculty experts at ENO will help you to understand the fundamental concepts of power system in order to tackle the real-world challenges. The power system certificate training consists of major topics:

• Power systems modeling and analysis

• Power quality and design

• Power systems standards

• Advanced power systems (Micro and Smart grids)

• Power system control ( linear and advanced)

The first part of this power system certificate training is dedicated to power system modeling and analysis which helps the engineers and students to understand the fundamentals of power systems including the main components of the power system and modeling approach for each components. Concepts such as: complex power, three phase balanced and unbalanced power systems, phasor and time domain, and per phase analysis will be introduced in the first part. Moreover, general information about performance of generators, transformers, transmission lines, switchgears, and loads are introduced.

In order to attract the audience’s attention, detailed modeling procedures will be described for the main components of the power systems. Next step is to combine the models in order to shape the power system models as a radial system, loop system or a network. The power system modeling and analysis part will also introduce the power flow analysis (DC and AC power flow) and its solution for the power system models, a detailed review of fault analysis, introduction to symmetrical components and sequence networks. Finally, state estimation in power systems will be introduced for the power system modeling and analysis part of the certificate. At the end of the first part, you will be able to understand the main components of the power system, model the transformers, generators, transmission lines and loads, apply different solutions to power flow analysis, conduct the fault analysis and understand the state estimation in power systems.

In the second part of the power systems certificate training, the audience will be introduced with the concepts of power quality, power system design and grounding, relaying, protection and energy management systems (EMS). Topics such as: grounding system design, grounding standards, power quality and effect of harmonics, voltage sags, voltage stability, reactive power compensation methods, distribution system design, and fault detection are covered in this part. Moreover, in order to improve the audience’s knowledge in power system protection and relaying, our instructors at TONEX will introduce the basic concepts of relaying, different types of relays, fundamentals of protection, and fault monitoring. Finally, the energy management systems will be described in order to prepare the engineers for the third part of the certificate which is the advanced power systems. The audience will learn the modern energy management systems, state estimation review, economic operation of power systems, network security, modern SCADA systems, and the concept of smart grid. By the end of the second part, you will be able to understand the power quality, relaying, protection, stability improvement and energy management systems in power grids.

Third part of the power systems certificate training helps you to understand the modern power system technologies and advancement of power electronic devices in recent power grid. This part will help you to update your knowledge about the recent improvements and advancements in power grids in order to increase the efficiency and reliability. The information from the first two parts of the certificate will be combined with power electronic concepts to shape the general power system including the traditional components as well as advanced renewable energy integration technologies. Topics such as: smart grid concept in distribution networks, efficiency and reliability of smart grids, communication technology, components of micro and smart grids, energy storage solutions, standards in micro grid and smart grid design, demand response, and wide area measurement systems (WAMS) will be included in this part. Furthermore, to improve the audience’s knowledge about micro and smart grid control, another section is designed in the third part to introduce the advanced power electronic devices, control voltage source inverters, concepts of peak shaving, load shedding, and demand response in power electronic convert control and hierarchical control of micro grids. By the end of the advanced power system part, you will be able to understand the modern power system components, communication technologies implemented for micro and smart grids and advanced upper level control approaches for converters in modern power systems.

The last part of power systems certificate training will teach you the elementary control design for power systems and introduces the advanced control approaches in modern power systems. By learning this part, you will be able to understand the history of control in power systems, concept of power system modeling for control design, feedback control in power systems, open and close loop control systems, location of roots and transient response. Furthermore, topics such as: stability of linear feedback power systems, stability analysis with rot locus method, and frequency response in modern power systems are introduced as the main parts of linear control systems in power system studies. To add more in depth knowledge and to update the control theory for modern power systems including the smart and micro grids, advanced control approaches are introduced too. Topics such as: frequency domain analysis in micro grids and smart grids, impedance analysis in renewable energy sources, closed loop frequency response, least square estimations in power flow studies, Kalman filter based estimation in power systems, state space based analysis and control design in modern power systems, and dynamic phasor analysis for balanced and unbalanced power systems are included in the advanced control section of part four.

By the end of the training, the audience not only will have sufficient knowledge about power system modeling, analysis, protection, power quality, but also will learn the fundamentals of micro grids, smart grids and their advanced control approaches. Although the power system certificate will be issued by taking all the four sections, taking one part will also lead to a certificate for the special area that is taken. The detailed outline for each part is included in a separate link below.

**Duration: ** 4 days

**Related Courses**

- Electric Power Transmission and Distribution Engineering Training
- Electricity Distribution Network Design Training
- Energy Storage Training
- Introduction to Power System Operation Training
- Microgrid Certification Training
- Microgrid Systems Engineering Training
- Microgrid Training Overview
- Microgrid Training Crash Course
- Mobile Networks Power Systems Training
- NERC CIP Training Bootcamp
- NERC System Operator Certification Training
- Offshore Wind Farm Training
- Power Grid Operation Training
- Power System Dynamic Analysis and Symmetrical Components Training
- Power System Engineering Training
- Power System Fundamentals for Engineers Training
- Power Systems Certificate Training
- Reactive Power Compensation and Voltage Control Training
- Smart Grid Training

Customize It:

» If you are familiar with some aspects of Power Systems Certificate Training, we can omit or shorten their discussion.

» We can adjust the emphasis placed on the various topics or build the Power Systems Certificate Training course around the mix of technologies of interest to you (including technologies other than those included in this outline).

» If your background is nontechnical, we can exclude the more technical topics, include the topics that may be of special interest to you (e.g., as a manager or policy-maker), and present the Power Systems Certificate Training course in manner understandable to lay audiences.

Audience / Target Group:

The target audience for this Power Systems Certificate training Course is defined here:

• All engineers who wants to learn, design, or operate the power systems

• Power traders to understand the power systems.

• Independent system operator personnel.

• Faculty members from academic institutes who want to teach the power system courses.

• Investors and contractors who plan to make investments in power industry.

• Professionals in other energy industries.

• Marketing people who need to know the background of the products they sell.

• Electric utility personnel who recently started career in power systems or having new job responsibilities.

• Technicians, operators, and maintenance personnel who are or will be working at power plants or power system generation companies.

• Managers, accountants, and executives of power system industry.

• Scientist or non-electrical engineers involved in power system related projects or proposals.

• Graduate students seeking a professional career in power systems

Objectives:

Upon completing this Power Systems Certificate training Course, learners will be able to meet these objectives:

• Understand the basic power system components with their functionality

• Design the power system components based on customers demand

• Differentiate the modern power system with advancement of power electronics with traditional power systems

• Model generators, transformers, transmission lines and loads

• Conduct the stability analysis for different components of the power systems

• Design the grounding system in power systems

• Design the distribution systems

• Understand the different types of faults in power systems and fault analysis

• Describe the fundamentals of protection and relaying in power systems

• Understand the modern power system components and smart/micro grids

• Explain the communication technology used in micro/smart grids

• Understand the different control levels in micro/smart grids

• Differentiate the modern and traditional control in power systems

• Explain the advanced control and optimizations implemented in micro/smart grids

• Analyze the stability in modern power systems

• Implement the control/analysis in real world projects

Power Systems Certificate Training – Course Syllabus:

**Power Systems Certificate training Part 1: Power System Modeling and Analysis**

Basic Concepts

Review of complex numbers.

Complex power.

Conservation of complex power

Balanced three-phase

Unbalanced three phase

Phasor and time domain

Per phase analysis

Per unit normalization

Change of base in per unit systems

Per unit analysis of normal system

Complex power transmission

**Main Components of Power Systems**

Generators

Transformers

Transmission lines

Substations (switchgears)

–Circuit breakers

–Disconnectors

Loads

Constant: Resistive, Inductive, Capacitive

Dynamic: Power electronic and electric vehicle charging

Induction Machines

**Transformer Modeling**

Single-phase transformers

Three phase transformers

Different connections for three phase transformers

Equivalent circuit model of transformers

Per-unit calculations in transformers

Auto-transformers

**Transmission Line Parameters and Performance**

Transmission line parameters

Transmission line modeling

Waves in transmission lines

Simplified transmission line models

Power-handling capability of transmission lines

**Power System Models**

Radial system

Loop system

Network system

**Power Flow Analysis**

AC power flow

DC power flow

Solutions for power flow

–Gauss iterations (Gauss-Seidel)

–Newton-Raphson

–Fast decoupled solution

**Fault Analysis**

Definition of faults

Main causes for faults

Types of faults in transmission lines

Fault event sequence

Fault analysis in simple circuits

RMS fault current calculations

Superposition approach for analysis of fault

Common types of faults

Single line to ground (SLG)

Double line to ground (DLG)

Line to line (LL)

Short circuit ratio (SCR) in power systems

Weak AC power system

**Symmetrical Components and Unbalanced Operation**

Introduction to symmetrical components

Symmetrical components for fault analysis

Sequence network connections

Positive sequence

Negative Sequence

Zero sequence

Sequence network connections for different fault types

Single-line to ground

Double line to ground

Line to line

Power from sequence variables

Generator model in sequence networks

Transformer model in sequence networks

Transmission line model in sequence networks

Sequence model for the entire system

Z-matrix method in fault analysis

Calculation of Z-matrix

**State Estimation**

Why state estimation?

What are the variables to be estimated?

Effect of noise on measurements

Objectives of state estimation in power systems

Effect of PMUs in state estimation

Basic procedure to estimate the states

Example with DC power flow

Solutions for state estimation

Weighted least square

Least square with updating weights

Least absolute value (LAV) method

Bad data processing and effect of noise

**Contingency Analysis**

Application of Thevenin’s theory in short circuit calculations

Passive short circuit analysis

AC short circuit analysis techniques

Short circuit analysis for radial systems

Multiple short circuit sources in interconnected networks

Balanced three phase short circuits

Unbalanced short circuit faults

Three phase analysis and estimation of X/R ratio of fault current

Time domain fault analysis in large scale power systems

AC/DC short circuit current calculations

**Power Systems Certificate training Part 2: Power Quality and Design**

**Fundamentals of Power Quality**

Basics of complex power and power flow in power systems

Introduction to power quality

Concept of power quality and definitions

IEEE standards for power quality

Power quality in utility

Power conditioners

Uninterruptable power systems (UPS)

Electrical disturbances effect the power quality

Equipment performance in terms of power quality

Concepts of harmonics

Effect of harmonics on power quality

Monitoring the power quality

Accuracy of monitoring

Impact of static converters on supply networks

Probability curves in power quality monitoring

Monitoring standards

Case studies in power quality

Flicker

Effect of noise on power quality

Effect of voltage changes on power quality

Transients

Voltage sag

Voltage swell

Effect of unbalance on power quality

Distributed generation and power quality

Troubleshooting the power quality problems

**Reactive Power Compensation**

Characteristics of inductances and capacitances

Reactive power

Reactive power compensator

Power factor correction

Passive filters

**Grounding System Design in Power Systems**

Principles of design

Purposes of grounding

Standards to be considered in grounding

Resistance and impedance to ground

Typical ground electrode constructions

NEC-Article 250 for grounding design

System models in grounding design

Designing the grounds for lightning

Impedance measurements for grounding

Grounding arrangement for low and high voltage

IEEE design procedures

Integrated ground designs

Testing the grounding design

Substation grounding design

Safety assessment for grounding design

Effect of grounding on power quality

**Distribution Grounding Design**

Introduction of grounding for distribution systems

Examples of distribution systems

Voltage levels in distribution systems

Distribution system components

Distribution grounding practices

Calculations for grounding resistance

Safety standards

Computer based grounding design

Ground measurements in distribution systems

Transients in distribution systems

Faults in distribution systems

Isolation transformers for distribution systems

**Protection and Relaying**

Different types of faults in power systems

Fundamentals of protection

Purpose of using relays

Current transformers

Voltage transformers

Earth fault and leakage protection

Differential protection

Generator protection

Transformer protection

Motor protection

Examples of protections

Testing of differential protections

Transformer earth fault protection

Earth fault relay

Generator relay testing

Stability, reclosing and load shedding

Fault monitoring

**Energy Management Systems (EMS)**

Modern energy management systems

State estimation

Economic operation

Network security

The smart grid

Modern SCADA systems

Distribution management system

Practical overview

**Power Systems Certificate training Part 3: Advanced power systems (Micro and Smart Grids)**

Introduction to Smart Grids

Definition of smart grids

Environmental issues

Advantages of smart grids

Benefits to customers

Information and communication technologies

Digital sense and control of the grid

**Introduction to Micro Grids**

Definition of micro grid

Main components of a micro grid

Distributed generation

Electrical vehicles

Car charging stations

Solar panels

Wind farms

Battery energy storages

Grid connected and islanded micro grids

Voltage source converters in micro grids

Efficiency of the micro grid

**Challenges Regarding the Smart and Micro Grids**

Regulatory changes in smart grids

Utility business models

Effect of loads on smart grids

Cost of generation

Controllability

Interaction between renewable energy sources of a micro grid

Frequency control challenges

Demand response in micro grids

**Interconnection of Smart and Micro Grids**

Transmission lines

Grid interconnection (grid connected mode)

Protection of transmission line in smart grids

Wide area measurement systems (WAMS)

Communication network in smart grids

Integration of electric vehicle into the grid

Integration of solar and wind farms to the grid

Wireless and wireline communications

Digital sense and control of smart grids

**Advance Technologies Offered by Smart Grids**

Power saving

Smart meters

Green energy systems

Smart substations

Smart residential networks

Advanced technologies for distribution automation

Advanced metering infrastructure

Could computing and mobile apps

Advanced pricing schemes

Large data analysis

**Security in Smart and Micro Grids**

Potential threats

Different types of faults

Voltage support

Frequency compensation

Demand response events

Government regulations

System protection

IEC 61850

Cyber security in smart grids

Secured smart grid

Data loss

**Advanced Control Architecture in Smart and Micro Grids**

Basic control provided by voltage source converters

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Hierarchical control of micro grids

Primary control

Inner current controllers

Voltage controllers

Active and reactive power control

Primary droop controllers

Secondary voltage and frequency controllers

Droop frequency controllers in islanded mode

Tertiary control of micro grids

Optimization and cooperative control in micro grids

Distributed optimization based upper level control

Energy management in battery energy storage systems

Control of solar panels

Maximum power point controller (MPPT)

Proportional resonance controller (PR)

Control of wind farms

Control of battery energy storages

Control of electric vehicles

**Power Systems Certificate Training Part 4: Power System Control (linear and advanced control) Training Outline**

**Introduction to Power System Control**

History of power system control

Control engineering practice

Examples of power system control

Modeling of Power System Control

Differential equations in power systems

Linear approximation of power system equations

The Laplace transform

Block diagram methods

Simulation of power systems

**Feedback Control in Power System**

Open and close loop control systems

Sensitivity of control systems

Control of transient response

Steady state error

Cost of feedback control

S-plane root location

Transient response in power systems

Performance indices

Simplification of linear models of power systems

**Stability of Linear Feedback Power System**

Concept of stability in power systems

Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion

Relative stability of feedback control

Root locations in s-plane

**Root locus Method in Power System Studies**

Root locus concept

Examples of root locus in power system studies

Parameter design by root locus method

Sensitivity analysis

**Frequency Response in Modern Power System**

Frequency response method

Bode and Nyquist analysis for power system studies

Performance specifications in frequency domain

Frequency domain analysis in Microgrids and Smart Grids

Impedance analysis of renewable energy sources

Stability in frequency domain

Closed loop frequency response

Stability with time delay effect

**Time Domain Analysis in Power System**

State variables of a dynamic power system

State vector differential equations

Time domain stability

Time response and transition matrix

**Least Square Estimation**

Problem formulation and examples in power system state estimation

Matrix singular analysis

Non-constraint optimization problem

**Kalman Filter Based Estimation**

The standard regulator problem

Basics of Kalman filtering

Asymptotic properties

Quadratic weight selection

State estimator design

Applications in power systems

Prony analysis

Kalman filtering toolbox

**Frequency Domain based Analysis and Control Design in Power System**

Introduction to frequency analysis

Applications in electrical resonances

Torsional resonance analysis

Impedance analysis

**State Space based Analysis and Control Design**

State space model of a linear system

Application to non-linear systems

Matrix analysis in power systems

Dynamic phasor based analysis

Application of dynamic phasor in unbalanced power systems

Dynamic phasor models of induction machines

**Optimization in Power System**

Problem formulation

Minimizing the generation cost in power systems

Adding the equality constraints

Inequality constraints

Subgradient based distributed optimization

Multi agent system based optimization

Battery scheduling and dispatch

**Wrap-up**

Power Systems Certificate training

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